Cultural Appropriation vs. Appreciation

What is cultural appropriation, and how does it affect what artists make? As media becomes more and more diverse, the question comes up: who has the right to tell which stories? Can an author write a character that is a different ethnicity, or sexual orientation, or gender expression than they themselves are? Can artists depict cultures and experiences not their own? The short answer is: of course. The fiction world and the art world would get terribly small very quickly (and the Science fiction and fantasy genre wouldn’t exist at all) if we could only create from what we ourselves experienced first-hand.